江苏快3开奖源: I am not aware that the derivation of our standard measures has been, in an historical way, as the foregoing remarks will indicate, nor is it the purpose here to follow such history. A reader, whose attention is directed to the subject, will find no trouble in tracing the matter from other sources. The present object is to show what a wonderful series of connections can be traced from so simple a tool as a measuring gauge, and how abstruse, in fact, are many apparently simple things, often regarded as not worth a thought beyond their practical application.。Ordinary machinery, on the reverse, is stationary, generally consumes a regular amount of power, is not subjected to such uncertain strains, and as a rule acts without its operation being controlled by the will of attendants. 打赢脱贫攻坚决战决胜 5月21号政协
江苏快3开奖源In the workshop, the objects of drawing are to communicate plans and dimensions to the workmen, and to enable a division of the labour, so that the several parts of a machine may be operated upon by different workmen at the same time—also to enable classification and estimates of cost to be made, and records kept.To follow this matter further. It will be found in such machines as are directed mainly to augmenting force or increasing the amount of power that may be applied in any operation, such as sawing wood or stone, the effect produced when compared to hand labour is nearly as the difference in the amount of power applied; and the saving that such machines effect is generally in the same proportion. A machine that can expend ten horse-power in performing a certain kind of work, will save ten times as much as a machine directed to the same purpose expending but one horse-power; this of course applies to machines for the performance of the coarser kinds of work, and employed to supplant mere physical effort. In other machines of application, such as are directed mainly to guidance, or speed of action, such as sewing machines, dove-tailing machines, gear-cutting machines, and so on, there is no relation whatever between the increased  effect that may be produced and the amount of power expended.
The addition of a few questions at the end of each chapter, some of which are not answered in the text, it is thought will assist the main object of the work, which is to promote a habit of logical investigation on the part of learners.
Punctuality costs nothing, and buys a great deal; a learner who reaches the shop a quarter of an hour before starting time, and spends that time in looking about, manifests thereby an interest in the work, and avails himself of an important privilege, one of the most effectual in gaining shop knowledge. Ten minutes spent in walking about, noting the changes wrought in the work from day to day, furnishes constant material for thought, and acquaints a learner with many things which would otherwise escape attention. It requires, however, no little care and discrimination to avoid a kind of resentment which workmen feel in having their work examined, especially if they have met with an accident or made a mistake, and when such inspection is thought to be  prompted by curiosity only. The better plan in such cases is to ask permission to examine work in such a way that no one will hear the request except the person addressed; such an application generally will secure both consent and explanation.
Civil engineering, in the meaning assumed for the term, has become almost a pure mathematical science. Constants are proved and established for nearly every computation; the strength and durability of materials, from long and repeated tests, has come to be well understood; and as in the case of machine tools, the uniformity of practice among civil engineers, and the perfection of their works, attest how far civil engineering has become a true science, and proves that the principles involved in the construction of permanent works are well understood.
Boring, as distinguished from drilling, consists in turning out annular holes to true dimensions, while the term drilling is applied to perforating or sinking holes in solid material. In boring, tools are guided by axial support independent of the  bearing of their edges on the material, while in drilling, the cutting edges are guided and supported mainly from their contact with and bearing on the material drilled.
Thin sections of steel tools being projections from the mass which supports the edges, are cooled first, and if provision is not made to allow for contraction they are torn asunder. 江苏快3开奖源:
A beginner, unless he exercises great care in the pencil-work of a drawing, will have the disappointment to find the paper soon becoming dirty from plumbago, and the pencil-lines crossing each other everywhere, so as to give the whole a slovenly appearance. He will also, unless he understands the nature of the operations in which he is engaged, make the mistake of regarding the pencil-work as an unimportant part, instead of constituting, as it does, the main drawing, and thereby neglect that accuracy which alone can make either a good-looking or a valuable one.
Water-wheels, or water-power, as a mechanical subject, is apparently quite disconnected with shop manipulation, but will serve as an example for conveying general ideas of force and motion, and, on these grounds, will warrant a more extended notice than the seeming connection with the general subject calls for.
Isometrical perspective is often useful in drawing, especially in wood structures, when the material is of rectangular section, and disposed at right angles, as in machine frames. One isometrical view, which can be made nearly as quickly as a true elevation, will show all the parts, and may be figured for dimensions the same as plane views. True perspective, although rarely necessary in mechanical drawing, may be studied with advantage in connection with geometry; it will often lead to the explanation of problems in isometric drawing, and will also assist in free-hand lines that have sometimes to be made to show parts of machinery oblique to the regular planes. Thus far the remarks on draughting have been confined to manipulation mainly. As a branch of engineering work, draughting must depend mainly on special knowledge, and is not capable of being learned or practised upon general principles or rules. It is therefore impossible to give a learner much aid by searching after principles to guide him; the few propositions that follow comprehend nearly all that may be explained in words.
This, again, reaches the proposition that power is heat, and heat is power, the two being convertible, and, according to modern science, indestructible; so that power, when used, must give off its mechanical equivalent of heat, or heat, when utilised, develop its equivalent in power. If the whole amount of heat represented in the fuel used by a steam-engine could be applied, the effect would be, as before stated, from ten to fifteen times as great as it is in actual practice, from which it must be inferred that a steam-engine is a very imperfect machine for utilising heat. This great loss arises from various causes, among which is that the heat cannot be directly nor fully communicated to the water. To store up and retain the water after it is expanded into steam, a strong vessel, called a boiler, is required, and all the heat that is imparted to the water has to pass through the plates of this boiler, which stand as a wall between the heat and its work.。
The steam-engine is the most important, and in England and America best known among motive agents. The importance of steam contrasted with other sources of motive-power is due not so much to a diminished cost of power obtained in this way, but for the reason that the amount of power produced can be determined at will, and in most cases without reference to local conditions; the machinery can with fuel and water be transported from place to place, as in the case of locomotives which not only supply power for their own transit, but move besides vast loads of merchandise, or travel.。
Tempering, as a term, is used to comprehend both hardening and drawing; as a process it depends mainly upon judgment instead of skill, and has no such connection with forging as to be performed by smiths only. Tempering requires a different fire from those employed in forging, and also more care and precision than blacksmiths can exercise, unless there are furnaces and baths especially arranged for tempering tools.。